“India, as a whole, has a low testing rate compared to some of the countries which have done well like Germany, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and even the US,” she stated whereas talking on ‘The vaccine race, balancing since and urgency’ organised by the Telangana authorities.
Participating through video-conferencing, she stated that each public well being division must have benchmarks like what is the check rate per million and what is the check positivity rate. “The moment your test positivity rate is above 5 per cent, you know that you are not testing adequately,” she stated.
She stated the WHO had been repeatedly emphasising that testing is extraordinarily essential. “Unless we do testing adequately, we don’t know where the virus is. If you are not testing, you are fighting a fire blindfolded. We have to test, test and test.”
Swaminathan stated for no less than the subsequent 12 months, nations have to put in place public well being and social measures which have been proven to work. She identified that some nations managed the virus efficiently within the first section due to good governance, good strategic planning primarily based on scientific information, and proof and due to involvement of group and particular person belief, and good communication between the federal government and folks.
She, nevertheless, added that testing alone was not going to resolve the issue and it must be adopted by isolation of constructive individuals, contact tracing, quarantining, taking good care of constructive individuals, and following them up to verify they do not get into interstitial pneumonia or issues by monitoring their oxygen saturation.
“It is a comprehensive package which needs to be put in place, particularly in places where there is high density of population like cities.”
Swaminathan harassed the necessity for Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance in rural areas however stated for cities, the one approach out was to broaden testing.
She stated the novel coronavirus has established itself on the planet and gone virtually into each nation and wherever it has discovered a scenario the place it was in a position to unfold simply from individual to individual, it established group transmission.
Swaminathan stated whereas most individuals, who’ve pure an infection, develop antibodies, it was not recognized how lengthy the protecting immunity lasts. “This has implications for vaccines. If long-lasting immunity cannot be achieved after a natural infection with the vaccine, we will have to see because all first generation vaccines are targeting spike protein. The only risk is if the virus develops mutation which causes it to escape the immunity… then we are in a difficulty,” she stated, stressing the necessity for a back-up plan within the type of second technology vaccines.
She famous that 27-28 vaccines have been in medical trials whereas one other 150 have been in pre-clinical testing. “At least five vaccines are entering stage-III trials. We will know in the next few months about the safety and efficacy of vaccines. Safety is important to get public trust when you are going to vaccinate a huge number of healthy individuals. The safety bar of vaccine has to be set quite high.”
Stressing the necessity for truthful and equitable entry of vaccines to populations world wide, she stated that the WHO didn’t need a repeat of what occurred through the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10 when few wealthy nations purchased a lot of the shares of vaccines and solely began donating it to lower-income nations after they realise that the an infection was not as extreme as speculated to be and so they had extra inventory. “If this happens again, then all of us would have failed.”
She identified that the WHO, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance plan to buy two billion doses by the tip of 2021 for the very best threat populations of the world.
“We have to get agreements between countries in the next few weeks that they will follow a fair allocation mechanism developed by the WHO. Side by side, Gavi is setting up a facility which is a risk pooling mechanism where self-financing countries can put in some funds so that they can procure vaccines for their populations. This facility will buy vaccines which are going to be proven to be safe and efficacious.”
India is one of many 92 Gavi eligible nations which can get the vaccines from this facility.